help save FLORES Hawk - Eagle

Spizaetus floris is found in Indonesia, on the islands of Flores, Sumbawa and Lombok (on the borders of Rinjani National Park) as well as on two satellite islands, Satonda near Sumbawa and Rinca near Komodo (Gjershaug et al. 2004). It has recently been reported from Alor (P. Collaerts in litt. 2011, F. Verbelen in litt. 2012) and is apparently present throughout the island (F. Verbelen in litt. 2012). Records from Paloe(Verheijen 1961) and Komodo (Coates and Bishop 1997) have not been verified. Its population size has been estimated at fewer than 100 pairs, based on the extent of suitable habitat and a territory size estimate of c.40 km2(Gjershaug et al. 2004). The lack of records obtained during fieldwork within its range suggest it occurs at low densities, supporting this population estimate. Population trends are not known, but it is assumed to be declining owing to on-going forest loss in the Lesser Sundas. 

No empirical data are available, but deforestation and persecution are likely to be causing an on-going decline. Given the species's longevity scaled over the past three generations it has almost certainly experienced a very rapid decline. 

It is found in lowland and submontane forest up to 1,600 m, with the majority of observations being made in lowland rainforest. It has been sighted over cultivated areas, but always close to intact or semi-intact forest; these records may relate to dispersing, immature or floater individuals rather than breeding adults. These records of birds outside core habitat suggest that the species may be able to disperse across the relatively narrow straits between islands so mixing between island sub-populations is inferred. Evidence suggests that breeding takes place during the dry season. Display flight and copulation have been observed on Flores in June-July. A territory size of 40 kmper pair has been estimated (Gjershaug et al. 2004).

Habitat degradation and destruction are the most important threats to S. floris; records are infrequent and it has rarely been recorded during trips to several large forest tracts suggesting extreme low density and casting some doubt on the assertion that it may be able to survive in a partly cultivated landscape. Protected areas in its range are currently too small to ensure its long-term survival. Persecution, due to its habit of stealing chickens, and capture for the cagebird trade pose additional threats. 

It has been recorded from Rinjani National Park on Lombok. Work is underway to inform local people of the importance of this species. 

Ensure the survival of the species by securing further protected areas within its range. Reduce persecution and exploitation levels through local education programmes. Conduct further research on the species's population size, trends and range. Verify records from additional islands. Study movements and determine population structure. 

BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Nisaetus floris. Downloaded from on 01/02/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/02/2013.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

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